true of ureteral ectopia

Question Number 1478

the following are true of ureteral ectopia

a) In males, ectopic ureters are usually associated with a duplicated collecting system
b) in duplex systems the ureteral orifice of the upper collecting system is usually caudal to that of the lower collecting system.
c) should be strongly suspected in males with recurrent epididymitis
d) In bilateral simple ectopic ureters in the female, there is usually bladder hypoplasia
e) In females, ureteral ectopia is usually associated with duplication of the collecting system

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