true of acute pyelonephritis

Question Number 1450

the following are true of acute pyelonephritis

a) infection secondary to vesicoureteral reflux requires fimbriated bacteria
b) imaging is indicated when there is a history of analgesic abuse
c) CT often demonstrates thickening of the cardinal ligament
d) there is delayed opacification of the collecting system in an intravenous urogram
e) effective antibiotic treatment resolves the syptoms but has not been shown to reduce the chance of scarring

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