vesico-ureteral reflux in children

Question Number 1302

The following are true of vesico-ureteral reflux in children

a) Reflux nephropathy accounts for over half of all end-stage renal failure
b) is very likely to occur when the ureter enters a diverticulum
c) In duplicated systems reflux is more common in the ureter which enters the bladder higher
d) Reflux is seen in about 15% of cases of posterior urethral valves
e) Grade I reflux with no ureteral dilatation will cease spontaneously with maturation in over half the cases

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